Deliverable D2.1

Matrix of risks and remediation measures

Risks and remediation measures at different stages of MAR site development

This report assessses the MAR-associated risks at six MAR sites from which are at different stages of development: three case studies at feasibility and pilot stage and three case studies at operational stage. The risk assessment study was conducted based on recommendations of international guidelines. The report may be used to assist in clarifying which actions or further investigations are required to reduce the uncertainty of risks and, if necessary, to implement remediation measures. In addition, this report intends to show how site-specific hazards have been assessed to varying degrees depending upon the level of risk assessed at each project development stage.

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Deliverable D3.1

Setup of real-time observation platform

Connection of UIT ́s SENSOweb with INOWAS platform

The present report describes the software infrastructure developed in the SMART-Control project to enable the import of third-party data into the INOWAS platform. Using two different transfer approaches, pre-formatted datasets are either uploaded to a FTP webserver as CSV files or retrieved from public APIs using the open-source monitoring and alerting toolkit Prometheus.

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Deliverable D4.1

Web-based real-time monitoring and control capabilities

Development and implementation of a web-based tool for the calculation of groundwater hydraulic residence time

This report describes the first part of the SMART-Control web-based tool T1: “Initial risk assessment. Part A. Estimation of groundwater hydraulic residence time”. The tool enables water utilities to estimate the groundwater hydraulic residence time at MAR sites by using temperature measurements in influent and recovered water. The tool was developed as collaboration between project partners KWB (R code development) and TUD (web-based frontend implementation).

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Deliverable D4.2

Web-based real-time monitoring and control capabilities

Implementation of web-based real-time monitoring tool on INOWAS platform

This report describes the main functionality of the web-based tool T2. Real time monitoring and control. The tool facilitates the operational management of MAR sites by collecting real-time data from the in-situ site-specific observation systems. Besides data collection, pre-processing and visualisation, the real-time monitoring tool is also equipped with basic decision rules and control features to help identify the occurrence of risks at a MAR facility.

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Deliverable D4.3

Web-based risk assessment tools

Development and implementation of a web-based tool for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA)

This report describes the main functionalities the SMART-Control web-based tool T1B Quantitative microbial risk assessment. The tool helps to quantify the pathogen occurrence in source water and their removal by various treatment steps at MAR facilities by using a probabilistic approach. The interactive web-based QMRA tool supports the evidence-based risk assessment to minimize water-related infectious diseases.

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Deliverable 4.4

Web-based real-time modelling

Implementation of the web-based real-time modelling tool on the INOWAS platform

This report describes the main functionality of the web-based tool “Real time modelling”. The real-time modelling tool allows a user to extend an existing numerical groundwater flow model with new sensor data. New stress periods are automatically added to the base model using either constant values or sensor data from the last time step of the base model up until the date, the model instance is created and run. Currently, the calculation process must be initiated manually but new data can be automatically imported from the INOWAS tool “Real-time monitoring”.

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Deliverable 4.5

Web-based real-time modelling

Implementation of the web-based prediction analysis tool on the INOWAS platform

Scenario analysis serves to evaluate various management solutions or to integrate climate, land use or urban change projections into the numerical model.  This report describes the main functionalities of the web-based tool “T07 MODFLOW model scenario manager” where various model runs can be easily compared with each other by distinct results visualization options. The developed web-interface provides new possibilities for easy transfer of modelling results to MAR operators, local stakeholders and decision-makers, independent of location and software to help take better informed, scientifically-based decisions with regard to MAR

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Deliverable 5.1

Real-time observation system at pilot scheme in Pirna, Germany

Testing of the newly developed real-time monitoring tool of the web- based INOWAS platform

The present report provides a brief description of the hydrogeological conditions underlaying the research test field in Pirna, Germany, and introduces the existing monitoring system that was updated to meet the project objectives. The specific aim of deliverable 5.1 is to demonstrate the integration of the local groundwater monitoring system into the INOWAS simulation platform and to validate the functionality of the web-based tool “T02. Real-time monitoring”.

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Deliverable 5.2

Real-time observation platform at MAR scheme in Berlin-Spandau, Germany

Online estimation of groundwater hydraulic residence time and advanced microbial monitoring using flow-through cytometry

The present report describes the field works conducted at the Berlin-Spandau case study for the characterisation of uncertainities regarding the microbial safety. The activities included an upgrade of the monitoring system to allow the online estimation of groundwater hydraulic residence time using SMART-Control web-based tools, and advancing the microbial risk assessment by flow-through cytometry, DNA sequencing and microbial cultivation along the MAR scheme.

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Deliverable 5.3

Real-time observation platform at MAR scheme in Toulon (Gapeau), France

Modeling of groundwater mound and effect of MAR on saline intrusion in a coastal aquifer

The present report describes the works conducted at the Gapeau-Aquarenova case study. It contains a description of the case study and of the monitoring system connected in real time to the INOWAS platform. A simple meshed model has been implemented in order to simulate the impact of the infiltration basin using MODFLOW modeling tool. This model is embedded on the web-based platform INOWAS. This case study has been used to test new analytical solutions in order to simulate the groundwater mound induced by the infiltration basin.

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Deliverable 5.4

Demonstration of the SMART-Control approach at the Ezousa MAR facility, Cyprus

Real-time monitoring, lab analysis of microbial and chemical quality parameters and groundwater model set-up on the INOWAS platform

The report describes the demonstration of the SMART-Control approach and developed tools at Ezousa MAR site. It provides details regarding the installation of the real-time monitoring system, which consists of three sensors that measure three water quality parameters: water level, electrical conductivity and temperature. Supplementary, groundwater is collected from five monitoring wells, which was analyzed in UCY’s lab facilities in order to assess its microbial and chemical status. Furthermore, details regading the development of a groundwater flow model for Ezousa site on the INOWAS platform are provided and preliminary results are shown for different numerical simulation scenarios.

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Deliverable 5.5

Installation of real-time monitoring system pilot site at João Pessoa, Brazil

Experiment setup & sensors’ installation for real-time monitoring

This report shows the information about the Managed Aquifer Recharge pilot site at João Pessoa, Brazil. In this report you can find detailed information about the whole pilot site setup: piezometers (7), pumping (1) and injection (2) wells drilling, storage tank, water level sensors installation and general facilities of this MAR site. This pilot site is located inside the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB, in Portuguese) campus, close to the Hydraulics Laboratory. The system construction started in July 2019, during the BRAMAR project, an international cooperation between Brazil and Germany, which was finished from October to November 2020 with the support of the SMART-Control project. The whole system is monitored online, where it is possible, for instance, to remotely follow an injection test. This site is the first one built in South America. The first pumping and injection tests are also show in this report. Two annexes are presented consisting of a set of photos showing the building process and all detailed information about the wells and piezometer profiles.

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Deliverable 6.1

Online training materials  

Overview of developed training approaches to strengthen the dissemination and application of the INOWAS platform

This report summarizes the developed online training material in the frame of the SMART-Control project for the newly developed or improved web-based tools to estimate groundwater residence time, assess the microbial risk as well as groundwater monitoring and modelling of MAR systems in real-time. The online training material comprises online documentations, tutorials and a series of online seminars. This fosters the dissemination and application of the newly developed tools on the web-based INOWAS platform.

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Deliverable 6.2a

Training courses on the use of the SMART-Control software

Part 1: Training course on the use of the SMART-Control software in Cyprus

This report summarizes the content and main outcomes of the first series of training activities within the SMART- Control project. The events are focused on the introduction of the tools and approaches developed within the project to a designated audience of technical and managerial stakeholders in Cyprus. The activities included a preliminary needs assessment to identify and characterize the interest of the participants in the content provided, followed by the implementation of public workshops and specialized training courses in SMART-Control software.

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Deliverable 6.2

Training courses on the use of the SMART-Control software

Implementation of training courses in Cyprus and Brazil

This report summarizes the content and main outcomes of the first series of training activities within the SMART-Control project. The events are focused on the introduction of the tools and approaches developed within the project to a designated audience of technical and managerial stakeholders in Cyprus and Brazil. The activities included a preliminary needs assessment to identify and characterize the interest of the participants in the content provided, followed by the implementation of public workshops and specialized training courses in SMART-Control software.

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Milestone 7.2

SMART-Control solutions workflow for the transfer of the approach

The present report describes the general transfer framework of the developed SMART-Control technology as a generic document to promote the SMART-Control approach and solution. The SMART-Control solutions workflow consists of two steps: first the MAR-associated risks are identified and prioritized. As a second step, the user is guided to one of the six specific web-based tools developed to quantify and manage the risks as well as to optimize the MAR facility. In addition, one methodology to quantify the long-term economical benefits arising from applying the SMART-Control approach based on the Value of Information methodology is presented.

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Deliverable 7.3

Transfer concepts of the SMART-Control approach in Brazil and Cyprus

This document provides application ideas of the SMART-Control approach at two new locations in the vicinity of the project sites in Cyprus and Brazil. The transfer especially focusses on the tools developed and tested at the project sites and is based on stakeholder interaction during the training and replication missions conducted at the project sites.

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Deliverable 7.4

Value of information associated to MAR real-time monitoring and control

This report describes the principle of the evaluation of Value of information (VoI) and presents a generic step-wise approach for assessing the VoI associated to SMART-Control monitoring system that can be implemented on a wide variety of contexts. It then presents the implementation of the stepwise approach to two operational MAR sites of the project: Berlin-Spandau (Germany) and Ezousa (Cyprus).

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Deliverable 7.5

Strengthening the SMART-Control approach

Two replication workshops at transfer sites

Replication workshops in Cyprus (October 2021) and Brazil (January 2022) have assessed site information and stakeholder views for the most promising replication sites for the SMART-Control approach. The SMART-Control approach, which includes a real-time monitoring and control system supported by a range of different web-based risk assessment and management tools, has the potential to increase water security at the sites by helping to reduce the risks associated with MAR.

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