Case study 1: Pirna, Germany
The pilot-scale scheme in Pirna, Germany (DEU1) consists of small-scale infiltration ponds and ASR wells that will be used for system setup, testing and validation of the real- time monitoring system as well as the developed tools.
Case study 2: Berlin, Germany
The full-scale scheme at Berlin, Germany (DEU2) infiltrates pre-treated water from the Havel River in infiltration ponds to increase water supply capacity. At this case study, the project will focus on real-time MRA using an innovative, fully automated online flow cytometry system. The specific objective is to combine real-time monitoring of subsurface residence times with high-resolution microbial dynamics, both influenced by natural and operational events in a groundwater well used for drinking water production.
Case study 3: Aquarenova, France
The full-scale scheme at Aquarenova, France (FRA) infiltrates water from Roubaud River in the alluvial aquifer to prevent saltwater intrusion induced by excessive water pumping in Hyères-les-Palmier city. The already existing monitoring system will be extended to account for real-time data transfer and to study the saltwater wedge on the left bank of the Gapeau river, which dynamics is so far only poorly understood.
Case study 4: Ezousa, Cyprus
The full-scale scheme at Ezousas, Cyprus (CYP) infiltrates tertiary treated wastewater through ponds to mitigate saltwater intrusion and increase the freshwater availability for irrigation. The MAR facility is currently only monitored manually and within SMART-Control, continuous monitoring using the RMCS will be setup. The specific objectives are to continuously monitor the effect of MAR on saltwater intrusion as well as the local water quality especially with respect to nitrate. Laboratory analysis of pathogens and heavy metals (copper) will accompany the online monitoring.
Case study 5: João Pessoa, Brazil
The pilot MAR scheme in João Pessoa, Paraiba (BRA1) consists of one ASR well to mitigate extreme climatic events through rainwater harvesting and infiltration into the unconfined aquifer. As no monitoring system exists so far, a RMCS will be installed within SMART-Control to monitor basic operational and water quality parameters.
Case study 6: Recife, Brazil
The pilot MAR scheme in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil (BRA2) is currently implemented. An ASR well will infiltrate pre-treated rainwater harvested from a roof into the confined coastal aquifer to reduce the effects of flood events in the urban district as well as saltwater intrusion. Within SMART-Control, the RMCS system will be setup to continuously monitor electrical conductivity and groundwater levels to evaluate the influence of the effect of the tide on the hydraulic load variation and to develop a sustainable groundwater management concept.